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Asia - Fixed Telecommunications Infrastructure

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Asia’s booming mobile and broadband sectors are quietly underpinned by the region’s all-important fixed infrastructure

The changing nature of the telecom market has had a major impact on the approach to investment in infrastructure. With shifting revenue patterns across the market segments and falling ARPUs on many services, operators became considerably more selective about what they actually invest in. Telecom operators throughout Asia have been adjusting investment levels on the back of carefully considered investment strategies. This has seen companies shifting business focus, looking for new ways to add value to existing revenue streams; it has also seen a strong desire to leverage new value from infrastructure that is already in place. This has especially been the case with mobile network moving increasingly to support mobile broadband services and newer generations of mobile technologies.

The governments of Asian nations have long recognised – some earlier than others – that there needed to be some encouragement of private sector investment to meet the demand for the all-important capital needed in the telecom sector. At the same time, it was also generally well recognised that this strategy could not rely on local investment alone, and would inevitably mean a substantial level of foreign investment. Of course, despite this recognition, there has inevitably been some resistance within some administrations to opening up the telecom sector to foreign investors and as a consequence the level of ‘encouragement’ across the region has been variable.

The initial round of substantial investment in telecom infrastructure in Asia was in fixed telephone networks. Over a number of decades the regional economies were progressively building their often quite substantial fixed-line national networks. These fixed networks were in time followed by the building of mobile networks. In many of the developing nations of the region, the building of fixed-line infrastructure was not far advanced before it was overwhelmed by the introduction of mobile infrastructure. This created the phenomenon of ‘substitution’ in many of the markets of Asia (where mobile services perform the function of the limited, or even non-existent, fixed telephone services.) Nevertheless, despite the unevenness in disposition, fixed infrastructure has been and continues to be an important component in the overall development of the region’s telecom sector. Coming into 2014 there were an estimated 500 million fixed-line subscribers in Asia; this was down from a peak of around 570 million in 2009; of course, fixed-line numbers are considerably less than the more than 3 billion mobile subscribers to be found in the region. Whilst the fixed line numbers have gone into an overall decline, in some markets the numbers have continued to increase. Overall, it is anticipated that the decline will continue for a few more years before the market ‘levels off.’

As already suggested, the focus of infrastructure building has been shifting. There has been a major push to upgrade domestic telecoms networks to Next Generation Networks (NGNs). This process has seen large scale investment by Asia’s leading telecoms markets in new-generation IP-based telecommunications networks. At the same time there has been a major surge in infrastructure building as mostly developed economies roll out National Broadband Networks (NBNs). These networks come in various ‘shapes and sizes’ as governments work with operators to tackle the strategic challenge of delivering high speed to the nation. Not surprisingly the NBNs rely heavily upon fibre; in some cases it is Fibre to the Premises (FttP), while in others it might be Fibre to the Node (FttN). And the cost varies accordingly. Those countries that have government backing for NBN roll-out are generally the ones that have been setting the pace.

In addition to the national networks, international connectivity remains central to the overall effectiveness of the region’s telecommunications services. Submarine cable routes criss-cross the Asia Pacific area, providing both intra-regional and inter-regional networks. This sector of the market has been characterised by widely fluctuating supply and demand, which in turn has seen somewhat erratic investment strategies. Submarine projects are subject to this boom and bust market phenomena, with planned projects commonly being delayed or abandoned, consortia being reshaped, etc. In fact, over-supply of capacity has been common in the Asian market. More recently investments have been less speculative and more focused on predicted growth. In the meantime, new submarine cable projects continue being proposed and the cables installed throughout the region. As Asia’s broadband usage surged, a major effort went into managing the shortfall in capacity between Asia and the US. At the same time there has been a shift away from the heavy reliance on the US as a hub for data traffic and this has inevitably resulted in a further change in focus.

As the demand for wholesale services continues to rise in Asia, still driven in the short term by voice, but rapidly being overtaken by data, there has been a boom in IP-based services, with the volume of international Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) traffic into and out of Asia having increased at a rapid rate at the expense of the traditional International Direct Dial (IDD) traffic.

Data in this report is the latest available at the time of preparation and may not be for the current year

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Table Of Content

Scope

1. Statistical Overview

2. Afghanistan

2.1 Overview

2.1.1 Background

2.1.2 Post-2001

2.1.3 Fixed-line statistics

2.1.4 National network - background

2.1.5 Local Fixed Services Plan (LFSP)

2.1.6 Optical fibre backbone

2.1.7 Telecommunication Development Fund (TDF)

2.1.8 Satellite services

2.1.9 Satellite project

2.2 Infrastructure projects

2.2.1 Globecomm contracts

2.2.2 Noori Fiber Tech project

2.2.3 AWCC's microwave ring

3. Armenia

3.1 National

3.2 International

4. Azerbaijan

4.1 National telecom network

4.1.1 Next Generation Network (NGN)

4.2 International infrastructure

4.2.1 Azerbaijan's satellites

4.2.2 Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) cable network

4.2.3 Europe Persia Express Gateway (EPEG)

5. Bangladesh

5.1 National telecom network

5.1.1 Fibre optic networks

5.1.2 Grameen Telecom's Village Project

5.2 International infrastructure

5.2.1 International Gateways

5.2.2 Satellite networks

5.2.3 Submarine cable connectivity

6. Bhutan

6.1 National telecom network

6.1.1 Overview

6.1.2 Fixed-line statistics

6.1.3 Universal Service Fund (USF)

6.1.4 Rural communications programs

6.1.5 Very Small Aperture Terminals (VSATs)

6.1.6 E-Shabtog

6.1.7 National optical fibre network

6.1.8 Remote communities

6.2 International infrastructure

7. Brunei Darussalam

7.1 National telecom network

7.1.1 Public payphones

7.1.2 GSM payphones

7.1.3 Fibre-to-the-Home (FttH)

7.2 International infrastructure

7.2.1 Trans-Borneo Optical Cable Network

7.2.2 Submarine cable networks

7.2.3 Satellite networks

7.3 Infrastructure developments

7.3.1 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)

7.3.2 Next Generation Networks (NGN)

8. Cambodia

8.1 National telecom network

8.2 Optical fibre networks

8.3 Mobile towers

8.4 Fixed-line operators

8.4.1 Telecom Cambodia

8.4.2 Viettel

8.4.3 Digi

8.5 International infrastructure

8.5.1 Greater Mekong Subregion Information Superhighway (GMS-IS)

8.5.2 Cambodian-Vietnamese Super Highway Telecoms Network

8.5.3 Proposed submarine cable

9. China

9.1 Infrastructure developments in China

9.2 International infrastructure

9.2.1 Terrestrial and submarine cable infrastructure

9.2.2 Satellite infrastructure

9.3 Smart grids

9.3.1 Electricity growth projections for China

9.3.2 Smart grids China investments

9.3.3 State Grid Corporation

10. Georgia

10.1 National telecom network

10.1.1 Wireless local loop (WLL)

10.2 International infrastructure

11. Hong Kong

11.1 National Infrastructure

11.1.1 Fixed-line and mobile phones

11.1.2 Fixed telecommunications services background

11.1.3 Digital 21 IT Strategy

11.2 FttB/FttH building registration scheme

11.3 International Infrastructure

11.3.1 Submarine cable networks

12. India

12.1 National infrastructure

12.1.1 Overview

12.1.2 Statistics

12.1.3 Background to network development

12.1.4 Infrastructure sharing

12.1.5 Rural and regional networks

12.1.6 Fibre optic cable projects

12.1.7 National optical fibre network

12.1.8 Wireless Local Loop (WLL) - background

12.2 Infrastructure developments

12.2.1 IP networks

12.2.2 Next Generation Networks (NGN)

12.3 International infrastructure

12.3.1 Background

12.3.2 Interconnect agreements

12.3.3 India-Pakistan

12.3.4 International service disruption

12.3.5 Submarine cable networks

12.3.6 Satellite communications

13. Indonesia

13.1 National infrastructure

13.1.1 Overview

13.1.2 Background to development

13.1.3 Fixed-line statistics

13.1.4 Infrastructure development

13.1.5 Joint operating service (KSO) ventures five-zone plan

13.1.6 Rural telephony

13.1.7 Wireless Local Loop (WLL)

13.1.8 Telecom towers

13.2 International infrastructure

13.2.1 International gateway exchanges

13.2.2 Submarine cable networks

13.2.3 Satellite networks

14. Japan

14.1 Infrastructure developments in Japan

14.1.1 Overview

14.1.2 Stimulus package for ICT infrastructure

14.2 Fixed-network market

14.2.1 Market background

14.2.2 MYLINE Carrier Selection Service (CSS)

14.3 International infrastructure

14.3.1 Submarine cables

14.3.2 Satellite

14.4 Other infrastructure development

14.4.1 Data centres

14.4.2 Cloud computing

14.4.3 High-speed fibre

14.4.4 Smart grid

14.4.5 Earthquake damage: March 2011

14.4.6 Smart city project for Tsunami-effected cities in Japan

14.4.7 Solar power projects

14.4.8 Internet exchange points

15. Kazakhstan

15.1 National

15.1.1 Overview

15.1.2 IP-based services

15.1.3 Next Generation Network (NGN) development

15.1.4 Wireless Local Loop (WLL)

15.2 International infrastructure

15.2.1 Trans Asia-Europe (TAE)

15.2.2 Satellite networks

15.2.3 KazSat satellite series

16. Kyrgyzstan

16.1 National telecom network

16.1.1 Overview

16.1.2 Fixed-line statistics

16.2 International infrastructure

16.2.1 Satellites

16.2.2 Optical fibre cable systems

17. Laos

17.1 National telecom network

17.1.1 Overview

17.1.2 Fixed-line statistics

17.1.3 Optical fibre network

17.2 International infrastructure

17.2.1 Terrestrial cable links

17.2.2 Asian Development Bank Backbone Telecommunications Network

17.2.3 Proposed satellite system

18. Macau

18.1 National Infrastructure

18.2 International Infrastructure

19. Malaysia

19.1 Overview

19.2 National telecom network development

19.2.1 Fixed-line networks

19.2.2 Sharing / leasing of infrastructure

19.2.3 Fibre optic backbones

19.2.4 Next Generation Networks (NGNs)

19.3 High-Speed Broadband (HSBB) network

19.3.1 Telekom Malaysia's HSBB project

19.3.2 Other HSBB proposals

19.4 International infrastructure

19.4.1 International gateways

19.4.2 Malaysia-Thailand

19.4.3 Submarine cable networks

19.4.4 Submarine system developments

19.4.5 Proposed submarine cable networks

19.4.6 Asia-Pacific Gateway (APG) cable

19.4.7 Satellite networks

19.5 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)

20. Maldives

20.1 National telecom network

20.1.1 Domestic satellite service

20.2 International infrastructure

20.2.1 Satellite networks

20.2.2 Submarine cable networks

21. Mongolia

21.1 National telecom network

21.1.1 Rural services

21.2 Fixed-line statistics

21.3 Wireless local loop statistics

21.4 International infrastructure

21.5 Satellite program

21.6 Satellite band usage in Mongolia

21.7 Chronological data of ICT developments in Mongolia

22. Myanmar

22.1 National infrastructure

22.1.1 Background

22.1.2 Fixed-line statistics

22.1.3 Wireless Local Loop (WLL)

22.1.4 National backbone network

22.2 International infrastructure

22.2.1 Overview

22.2.2 Satellite networks

23. Nepal

23.1 National telecom network

23.1.1 Overview

23.1.2 Nepal East West SDH project

23.2 International infrastructure

23.2.1 Overview

23.2.2 Proposed satellite

23.3 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)

24. North Korea

24.1 National telecom network

24.1.1 North-South connections

24.2 International infrastructure

24.2.1 Satellite networks

24.3 Kwangmyongsong 3-2 Satellite

25. Pakistan

25.1 National telecom network

25.1.1 Overview

25.1.2 Fixed line statistics

25.1.3 Opening up of market

25.1.4 Rural services

25.1.5 Universal Service Fund (USF)

25.1.6 Mobile services

25.1.7 Fibre optic networks

25.1.8 Broadband networks

25.1.9 Payphones and Public Call Offices (PCOs)

25.1.10 Wireless Local Loop (WLL)

25.1.11 Next Generation Networks (NGNs)

25.1.12 Backhaul

25.2 International infrastructure

25.2.1 International gateways

25.2.2 Pakistan-India link

25.2.3 Submarine cable networks

25.2.4 Satellite networks and systems

25.3 Infrastructure developments

25.3.1 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)

26. Philippines

26.1 Philippines and Typhoon Haiyan (known locally as Typhoon Yolanda)

26.1.1 The Typhoon

26.1.2 Aftermath

26.2 Infrastructure Overview

26.3 National infrastructure

26.3.1 Overview

26.3.2 Fixed-line statistics

26.3.3 Globe Telecom's national fixed-line licence

26.4 Background: Service Area Scheme (SAS)

26.5 National fibre optic networks

26.5.1 Background

26.5.2 Developments 2012 / 2013

26.6 Next Generation Networks (NGNs)

26.6.1 PLDT

26.6.2 ETPI

26.7 International infrastructure

26.7.1 International gateways

26.7.2 Submarine cable networks

26.7.3 Satellite systems

26.8 Infrastructure developments

26.8.1 Wireless Local Loop (WLL)

26.8.2 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)

26.8.3 Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) services

27. Singapore

27.1 National telecom network

27.1.1 Overview

27.1.2 Fixed-mobile convergence (FMC)

27.2 Next Generation National Infocomm Infrastructure (Next Gen NII)

27.3 International infrastructure

27.3.1 Submarine cable networks

27.3.2 Submarine cable systems under construction

27.3.3 Flag Telecom

27.3.4 Satellite networks

27.4 Infrastructure developments

27.4.1 International services

27.4.2 IP networks

28. South Korea

28.1 National submarine cable infrastructure

28.2 International submarine cable infrastructure

28.3 Satellite infrastructure

28.4 Internet infrastructure

28.4.1 Internet eXchange (IX)

28.4.2 South Korea registered domains

28.4.3 IPv6

28.4.4 South Korea international internet bandwidth

28.5 Smart grids

28.5.1 Smart grid: new laws

28.5.2 Smart grid stages: 2010 - 2030

28.5.3 Five smart grid implementation areas

28.5.4 Jeju Island

28.6 Smart cities

28.6.1 New Songdo City

28.6.2 Busan

29. Sri Lanka

29.1 Overview

29.2 National telecom network

29.3 Fixed-line statistics

29.4 Infrastructure development

29.4.1 STL's role

29.4.2 Wireless Local Loop (WLL)

29.4.3 Fibre optic networks

29.4.4 National Backbone Network (NBN)

29.4.5 Payphones

29.4.6 Numbering plan

29.4.7 Internet Protocol (IP) networks

29.5 International infrastructure

30. Taiwan

30.1 Market overview

30.2 Fixed network operators' market share

30.3 Submarine cable networks

30.4 Satellite networks

31. Tajikistan

31.1 National and international

31.2 Infrastructure developments

31.2.1 Next Generation Networks (NGNs)

32. Thailand

32.1 National telecom network

32.1.1 Overview

32.2 Fixed-line network

32.2.1 Background

32.2.2 Statistics

32.2.3 Public payphones

32.3 Next Generation Network (NGN)

32.4 International infrastructure

32.4.1 Overview

32.4.2 Submarine cable networks

32.4.3 Submarine cable systems under construction or proposed

32.4.4 Satellite networks

33. Timor Leste

33.1 National infrastructure

33.2 International infrastructure

33.2.1 Satellite networks

33.2.2 Submarine cable

34. Turkmenistan

34.1 National and international

34.1.1 Fibre optic networks

35. Uzbekistan

35.1 National telecom network

35.1.1 Fibre optic cables

35.2 Satellite communications

36. Vietnam

36.1 National telecom network

36.1.1 Overview

36.1.2 Background to development

36.1.3 Payphones

36.1.4 Next Generation Networks (NGNs)

36.1.5 Wireless Local Loop (WLL)

36.2 National infrastructure projects and equitisation

36.2.1 SK Telecom

36.3 International infrastructure

36.3.1 Background to development

36.3.2 Submarine cable networks

36.3.3 Satellite networks

Table 1 Fixed-line subscribers in Asia by country 2009 2014

Table 2 Fixed-line penetration in Asia by country 2009 2014

Table 3 Top fifteen countries in Asia by fixed-line subscription numbers 2009 2014

Table 4 Top fifteen countries in Asia by fixed-line penetration 2009 2014

Table 5 Afghanistan Historical - Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity 1994; 2000 - 2004

Table 6 Afghanistan Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity 2005 - 2013

Table 7 Afghanistan Fixed wireless (WLL) subscribers 2011 - 2012

Table 8 Afghanistan Fixed-line subscribers wireline and wireless - 2012

Table 9 Armenia Historical - Fixed lines in service, annual change and teledensity 1991 - 2004

Table 10 Armenia Fixed lines in service, annual change and teledensity 2005 - 2013

Table 11 Azerbaijan Historical - Fixed lines in service, annual growth and teledensity 1995 - 2004

Table 12 Azerbaijan Fixed lines in service, annual growth and teledensity 2005 - 2012

Table 13 Bangladesh Fixed lines in service and teledensity 1995 - 2013

Table 14 Bangladesh optical fibre network - 2011

Table 15 Village Phones in Bangladesh 1998 2007; 2010 - 2011

Table 16 Bhutan Fixed lines in service and teledensity 1995 - 2013

Table 17 Brunei Fixed line subscribers and penetration rate 1990; 1995; 2000 - 2013

Table 18 Cambodia Fixed lines in service and penetration 1995 - 2013

Table 19 China main indicators of telecommunications capacity June 2013

Table 20 Georgia Fixed lines in service, annual change and penetration 1995 - 2013

Table 21 Georgia Fixed subscribers by technology type March 2012

Table 22 Hong Kong Fixed line versus mobile subscriptions and penetration rates 1998 - 2014

Table 23 Hong Kong Fixed-line telephony subscribers 2000 2013

Table 24 Hong Kong External fixed-line telephone traffic volume in minutes 1997 2012

Table 25 Hong Kong IP telephony subscribers 2007 - 2013

Table 26 Hong Kong Digital 21 Strategy key indicators April 2013

Table 27 External telecommunications facilities capacity of Hong Kong 2000 - 2013

Table 28 India Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity 2005 - 2013

Table 29 India Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity (historical) 1995 - 2005

Table 30 India Growth of VPT scheme 2001 - 2012

Table 31 India PCOs in operation 2003 - 2012

Table 32 India PCOs in operation and market share by operator 2012

Table 33 India Fixed WLL subscribers (historical) 2004 - 2006

Table 34 Indonesia Fixed-line subscribers, annual change and teledensity 1995 - 2013

Table 35 Indonesia Fixed lines subscribers and annual change by operator March 2013

Table 36 Indonesia Fixed wireless v. wireline subscribers March 2013

Table 37 Indonesia Planned five-year USO deployment of lines for villages 2006 - 2010

Table 38 Indonesia Fixed-wireless (WLL) subscribers 2003; 2007 - 2013

Table 39 Indonesia Fixed-wireless (WLL) subscribers by operator March 2013

Table 40 Indonesia PT Telkom's fixed wireless subscribers 2003 - 2013

Table 41 Indonesia PT Telkom fixed-line wireless subscribers - prepaid v. postpaid 2012

Table 42 Indonesia PT Telkom fixed-line subscribers - wireless v. wireline 2012

Table 43 Japan MYLINE subscribers 2002 - 2014

Table 44 Japan MYLINE operator market share February 2012

Table 45 Japan MYLINE operator market share December 2013

Table 46 Japan International internet bandwidth 1995 - 2013

Table 47 Selected cloud computing investments in Asia

Table 48 Cloud computing services market in Japan forecasts 2010 - 2015

Table 49 Kazakhstan Fixed lines in service and teledensity 1995 2013

Table 50 Kazakhstan Fixed-line subscribers in urban areas 2009 2013

Table 51 Kyrgyzstan Fixed lines in service, annual change and teledensity 1991 - 2013

Table 52 Laos Fixed lines in service 1995 - 2013

Table 53 Laos WLL (fixed) subscribers 2004 - 2012

Table 54 Laos Fibre network by operator 2012

Table 55 Macau Fixed-lines and teledensity 1985 - 2014

Table 56 Macau Fixed-line subscribers residential v. business December 2013

Table 57 Malaysia Fixed lines in service and teledensity 1995 - 2013

Table 58 Malaysia Fixed-line household penetration rate 2000 - 2013

Table 59 Maldives Fixed lines in service and teledensity 1995 - 2013

Table 60 Maldives Fixed-line subscribers by region February 2013

Table 61 Mongolia Fixed lines in service and teledensity 1990, 1995 2013

Table 62 Mongolia Local fixed-line telephone traffic 1997 2009

Table 63 Mongolia Wireless local loop (WLL) lines in service 2003 2011

Table 64 Mongolia L and S band usage July 2012

Table 65 Mongolia C band usage July 2012

Table 66 Mongolia Ku band usage July 2012

Table 67 Myanmar Fixed-line subscribers, penetration and annual change 1988, 1990, 1995 - 2013

Table 68 Nepal Fixed-lines in service and teledensity 1995 - 2013

Table 69 Nepal Fixed WLL subscribers 2006; 2008 - 2013

Table 70 Nepal Fixed-line subscribers wireline and WLL 2010 - 2013

Table 71 North Korea Fixed lines in service and teledensity 1990; 2000; 2005; 2010

Table 72 Pakistan Fixed lines in service and teledensity 1991 - 2014

Table 73 Pakistan Fixed wireline subscribers 2004 - 2013

Table 74 Pakistan Fixed wireline v. fixed wireless (WLL) subscribers 2004 - 2013

Table 75 Pakistan Fixed wireline subscribers by operator and market share June 2012

Table 76 Pakistan Growth in Public Call Offices (PCOs) 1999 - 2009

Table 77 Pakistan WLL subscribers 2005 - 2013

Table 78 Pakistan Fixed-line (wireless) subscribers by operator September 2012

Table 79 Philippines Historical - Fixed lines in service and penetration 1994 - 2004

Table 80 Philippines Fixed lines in service and penetration 2005 2014

Table 81 Philippines Fixed lines proportion of urban and residential subscribers 2007 - 2012

Table 82 Philippines Historical - Fixed lines installed versus lines in operation 1995 - 2004

Table 83 Philippines Fixed lines installed versus lines in operation 2005 - 2013

Table 84 Philippines Fixed lines - installed and subscribers by operator - 2012

Table 85 Philippines Total lines installed by operator by SAS target date

Table 86 Singapore Fixed lines in service and penetration 1998 - 2013

Table 87 Singapore Overview of fixed-line subscribers June 2013

Table 88 South Korea Registered .kr domains 1993 - 2013

Table 89 South Korea Number of IPv4 and IPv6 addresses 1997 - 2013

Table 90 South Korea International bandwidth 1997 - 2013

Table 91 South Korea Smart grid investment to 2015

Table 92 Sri Lanka Fixed lines in service, annual change and teledensity 1995 - 2013

Table 93 Sri Lanka Fixed subscribers wireline and wireless (WLL) - 2009 - 2013

Table 94 Sri Lanka WLL subscribers 1996 - 2013

Table 95 Taiwan Fixed network operators market share by revenue 2012

Table 96 Taiwan Chunghwa Telecom fixed subscribers and market share 2004 - 2012

Table 97 Tajikistan Fixed lines in service, annual growth and teledensity 1995 - 2013

Table 98 Thailand Fixed lines and teledensity 1995 - 2013

Table 99 Thailand Estimated fixed-line subscribers by operator 2011

Table 100 Thailand Estimated fixed-line subscribers metro vs provincial 2011

Table 101 Thailand Public payphones in service 2004 - 2012

Table 102 Thailand Public payphones by provider 2011

Table 103 Timor Leste Fixed line subscribers, annual change and penetration 1995; 1998 - 2000; 2003 - 2014

Table 104 Turkmenistan Fixed lines in service and teledensity 1991 2013

Table 105 Uzbekistan Fixed lines in service, annual growth and teledensity 1991 - 2013

Table 106 Vietnam Fixed line subscribers and penetration 1990 2013

Chart 1 - Afghanistan Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity - 2005 - 2013

Chart 2 - Afghanistan Fixed-line subscribers - wireline and wireless - 2012

Chart 3 Armenia Fixed lines in service, annual change and teledensity - 2005 - 2013

Chart 4 Azerbaijan Fixed lines in service and teledensity 2001 2013

Chart 5 Bangladesh fixed-line subscribers and teledensity 2000 - 2013

Chart 6 - Bhutan Fixed lines in service and teledensity - 2000-2013

Chart 7 - Brunei Fixed line subscribers and penetration rate - 2000 2013

Chart 8 - Cambodia Fixed lines in service and penetration 2006-2013 (e)

Chart 9 - Georgia Fixed lines in service, annual change and penetration - 2007 2013

Chart 10 - Georgia Fixed subscribers by technology type - March 2012

Chart 11 Hong Kong fixed-line and mobile subscribers 1995 - 2014

Chart 12 Hong Kong fixed-line telephony subscribers 2000 - 2013

Chart 13 Hong Kong IP telephony subscribers 2007 - 2013

Chart 14 - India Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity 2005 - 2013

Chart 15 - India Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity (historical) 1995 - 2005

Chart 16 India PCOs in operation and market share by operator - 2012

Chart 17 - Indonesia Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity 2005 - 2013

Chart 18 Japan International bandwidth 2005 2013

Chart 19 - Kazakhstan Fixed lines in service and annual change - 2000-2013 (e)

Chart 20 - Kyrgyzstan Fixed lines in service, annual change and teledensity - 2000-2013

Chart 21 - Laos Fixed lines in service - 2005 - 2013

Chart 22: Macau Fixed and mobile subscribers: 2000 - 2014

Chart 23 - Malaysia Fixed lines in service and teledensity - 2000 2013

Chart 24 - Maldives Fixed lines in service and teledensity - 2000 2013

Chart 25 - Maldives Fixed line subscribers by region - February 2013

Chart 26 Mongolia Fixed lines in service and teledensity 1998 2014

Chart 27 - Myanmar Fixed-line subscribers and annual change - 2000 2013

Chart 28 - Nepal Fixed lines in service and annual change 2000 - 2013

Chart 29 - Pakistan Fixed lines in service and teledensity - 2001-2014

Chart 30 - Pakistan Fixed wireline vs. fixed wireless subscribers - 2004-2013

Chart 31 - Pakistan Growth in Public Call Offices - 1999-2009

Chart 32 - Pakistan WLL subscribers by operator and market share - September 2012

Chart 33 - Philippines Fixed lines in service and annual change - 2005 2014

Chart 34 - Philippines Fixed line operators - market share - 2012

Chart 35 - Singapore Fixed lines in service and penetration - 2000-2013

Chart 36 - Sri Lanka Fixed lines in service and annual change 2000 - 2013(e)

Chart 37 - Sri Lanka Fixed subscribers - wireline and WLL - 2009-2013

Chart 38 - Tajikistan Fixed lines in service, annual growth and teledensity - 2000-2013

Chart 39 Thailand Fixed and mobile subscribers 1999 - 2010

Chart 40 - Thailand Fixed lines and teledensity - 2000-2012

Chart 41 - Thailand Public payphones in service - 2004-2011

Chart 42 - Timor Leste Fixed line subscribers and penetration - 2003 2014

Chart 43 - Turkmenistan Fixed lines in service and annual change 2000-2013

Chart 44 - Uzbekistan Fixed lines in service, annual growth and teledensity 2001 - 2013

Chart 45 Vietnam Fixed line subscribers and annual change 2005 - 2013

Exhibit 1 Major submarine cables with landing points in Brunei - 2012

Exhibit 2 China Regional/international fibre optic cable networks: Augusy 2013

Exhibit 3 Selected Chinese satellite service providers and satellites

Exhibit 4 China Satcom satellite fleet

Exhibit 5 Major submarine cables with landing points in Hong Kong 2013

Exhibit 6 International submarine cable systems with landing points in India - 2012

Exhibit 7 India ISRO satellite network September 2012

Exhibit 8 Indonesia Palapa Ring Project specification of rings

Exhibit 9 Indonesian satellites 2012

Exhibit 10 Japan Major members of MYLINE Carriers Association February 2012

Exhibit 11 Japan Major global/regional submarine cables with landing point in Japan - 2014

Exhibit 12 Kazakhstan Construction of the National Information Highway (NIH) backbone

Exhibit 13 International submarine cable systems with landing points in Malaysia - 2013

Exhibit 14 Chronological events of ICT developments in Mongolia 1921 2011

Exhibit 15 Philippines Major submarine cables with landing points in the Philippines - 2011

Exhibit 16 International submarine cable systems with landing points in Singapore 2013

Exhibit 17 National submarine fibre optic cables overview in South Korea

Exhibit 18 International submarine fibre optic cables overview in South Korea

Exhibit 19 KOREASAT satellite status

Exhibit 20 South Korea Interconnection status by IX - 2011

Exhibit 21 South Korea Smart grid implementation areas

Exhibit 22 South Korea Phased implementation plan of Jeju Smart Grid: 2010 - 2013

Exhibit 23 Major global/regional submarine cables with landing point in Taiwan 2013

Exhibit 24 Thailand Submarine cable networks - 2012

Exhibit 25 Thaicom's satellite network June 2013


List Of Figure

Chart 1 - Afghanistan Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity - 2005 - 2013

Chart 2 - Afghanistan Fixed-line subscribers - wireline and wireless - 2012

Chart 3 Armenia Fixed lines in service, annual change and teledensity - 2005 - 2013

Chart 4 Azerbaijan Fixed lines in service and teledensity 2001 2013

Chart 5 Bangladesh fixed-line subscribers and teledensity 2000 - 2013

Chart 6 - Bhutan Fixed lines in service and teledensity - 2000-2013

Chart 7 - Brunei Fixed line subscribers and penetration rate - 2000 2013

Chart 8 - Cambodia Fixed lines in service and penetration 2006-2013 (e)

Chart 9 - Georgia Fixed lines in service, annual change and penetration - 2007 2013

Chart 10 - Georgia Fixed subscribers by technology type - March 2012

Chart 11 Hong Kong fixed-line and mobile subscribers 1995 - 2014

Chart 12 Hong Kong fixed-line telephony subscribers 2000 - 2013

Chart 13 Hong Kong IP telephony subscribers 2007 - 2013

Chart 14 - India Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity 2005 - 2013

Chart 15 - India Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity (historical) 1995 - 2005

Chart 16 India PCOs in operation and market share by operator - 2012

Chart 17 - Indonesia Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity 2005 - 2013

Chart 18 Japan International bandwidth 2005 2013

Chart 19 - Kazakhstan Fixed lines in service and annual change - 2000-2013 (e)

Chart 20 - Kyrgyzstan Fixed lines in service, annual change and teledensity - 2000-2013

Chart 21 - Laos Fixed lines in service - 2005 - 2013

Chart 22: Macau Fixed and mobile subscribers: 2000 - 2014

Chart 23 - Malaysia Fixed lines in service and teledensity - 2000 2013

Chart 24 - Maldives Fixed lines in service and teledensity - 2000 2013

Chart 25 - Maldives Fixed line subscribers by region - February 2013

Chart 26 Mongolia Fixed lines in service and teledensity 1998 2014

Chart 27 - Myanmar Fixed-line subscribers and annual change - 2000 2013

Chart 28 - Nepal Fixed lines in service and annual change 2000 - 2013

Chart 29 - Pakistan Fixed lines in service and teledensity - 2001-2014

Chart 30 - Pakistan Fixed wireline vs. fixed wireless subscribers - 2004-2013

Chart 31 - Pakistan Growth in Public Call Offices - 1999-2009

Chart 32 - Pakistan WLL subscribers by operator and market share - September 2012

Chart 33 - Philippines Fixed lines in service and annual change - 2005 2014

Chart 34 - Philippines Fixed line operators - market share - 2012

Chart 35 - Singapore Fixed lines in service and penetration - 2000-2013

Chart 36 - Sri Lanka Fixed lines in service and annual change 2000 - 2013(e)

Chart 37 - Sri Lanka Fixed subscribers - wireline and WLL - 2009-2013

Chart 38 - Tajikistan Fixed lines in service, annual growth and teledensity - 2000-2013

Chart 39 Thailand Fixed and mobile subscribers 1999 - 2010

Chart 40 - Thailand Fixed lines and teledensity - 2000-2012

Chart 41 - Thailand Public payphones in service - 2004-2011

Chart 42 - Timor Leste Fixed line subscribers and penetration - 2003 2014

Chart 43 - Turkmenistan Fixed lines in service and annual change 2000-2013

Chart 44 - Uzbekistan Fixed lines in service, annual growth and teledensity 2001 - 2013

Chart 45 Vietnam Fixed line subscribers and annual change 2005 - 2013

Exhibit 1 Major submarine cables with landing points in Brunei - 2012

Exhibit 2 China Regional/international fibre optic cable networks: Augusy 2013

Exhibit 3 Selected Chinese satellite service providers and satellites

Exhibit 4 China Satcom satellite fleet

Exhibit 5 Major submarine cables with landing points in Hong Kong 2013

Exhibit 6 International submarine cable systems with landing points in India - 2012

Exhibit 7 India ISRO satellite network September 2012

Exhibit 8 Indonesia Palapa Ring Project specification of rings

Exhibit 9 Indonesian satellites 2012

Exhibit 10 Japan Major members of MYLINE Carriers Association February 2012

Exhibit 11 Japan Major global/regional submarine cables with landing point in Japan - 2014

Exhibit 12 Kazakhstan Construction of the National Information Highway (NIH) backbone

Exhibit 13 International submarine cable systems with landing points in Malaysia - 2013

Exhibit 14 Chronological events of ICT developments in Mongolia 1921 2011

Exhibit 15 Philippines Major submarine cables with landing points in the Philippines - 2011

Exhibit 16 International submarine cable systems with landing points in Singapore 2013

Exhibit 17 National submarine fibre optic cables overview in South Korea

Exhibit 18 International submarine fibre optic cables overview in South Korea

Exhibit 19 KOREASAT satellite status

Exhibit 20 South Korea Interconnection status by IX - 2011

Exhibit 21 South Korea Smart grid implementation areas

Exhibit 22 South Korea Phased implementation plan of Jeju Smart Grid: 2010 - 2013

Exhibit 23 Major global/regional submarine cables with landing point in Taiwan 2013

Exhibit 24 Thailand Submarine cable networks - 2012

Exhibit 25 Thaicom's satellite network June 2013


List Of Table

Table 1 Fixed-line subscribers in Asia by country 2009 2014

Table 2 Fixed-line penetration in Asia by country 2009 2014

Table 3 Top fifteen countries in Asia by fixed-line subscription numbers 2009 2014

Table 4 Top fifteen countries in Asia by fixed-line penetration 2009 2014

Table 5 Afghanistan Historical - Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity 1994; 2000 - 2004

Table 6 Afghanistan Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity 2005 - 2013

Table 7 Afghanistan Fixed wireless (WLL) subscribers 2011 - 2012

Table 8 Afghanistan Fixed-line subscribers wireline and wireless - 2012

Table 9 Armenia Historical - Fixed lines in service, annual change and teledensity 1991 - 2004

Table 10 Armenia Fixed lines in service, annual change and teledensity 2005 - 2013

Table 11 Azerbaijan Historical - Fixed lines in service, annual growth and teledensity 1995 - 2004

Table 12 Azerbaijan Fixed lines in service, annual growth and teledensity 2005 - 2012

Table 13 Bangladesh Fixed lines in service and teledensity 1995 - 2013

Table 14 Bangladesh optical fibre network - 2011

Table 15 Village Phones in Bangladesh 1998 2007; 2010 - 2011

Table 16 Bhutan Fixed lines in service and teledensity 1995 - 2013

Table 17 Brunei Fixed line subscribers and penetration rate 1990; 1995; 2000 - 2013

Table 18 Cambodia Fixed lines in service and penetration 1995 - 2013

Table 19 China main indicators of telecommunications capacity June 2013

Table 20 Georgia Fixed lines in service, annual change and penetration 1995 - 2013

Table 21 Georgia Fixed subscribers by technology type March 2012

Table 22 Hong Kong Fixed line versus mobile subscriptions and penetration rates 1998 - 2014

Table 23 Hong Kong Fixed-line telephony subscribers 2000 2013

Table 24 Hong Kong External fixed-line telephone traffic volume in minutes 1997 2012

Table 25 Hong Kong IP telephony subscribers 2007 - 2013

Table 26 Hong Kong Digital 21 Strategy key indicators April 2013

Table 27 External telecommunications facilities capacity of Hong Kong 2000 - 2013

Table 28 India Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity 2005 - 2013

Table 29 India Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity (historical) 1995 - 2005

Table 30 India Growth of VPT scheme 2001 - 2012

Table 31 India PCOs in operation 2003 - 2012

Table 32 India PCOs in operation and market share by operator 2012

Table 33 India Fixed WLL subscribers (historical) 2004 - 2006

Table 34 Indonesia Fixed-line subscribers, annual change and teledensity 1995 - 2013

Table 35 Indonesia Fixed lines subscribers and annual change by operator March 2013

Table 36 Indonesia Fixed wireless v. wireline subscribers March 2013

Table 37 Indonesia Planned five-year USO deployment of lines for villages 2006 - 2010

Table 38 Indonesia Fixed-wireless (WLL) subscribers 2003; 2007 - 2013

Table 39 Indonesia Fixed-wireless (WLL) subscribers by operator March 2013

Table 40 Indonesia PT Telkom's fixed wireless subscribers 2003 - 2013

Table 41 Indonesia PT Telkom fixed-line wireless subscribers - prepaid v. postpaid 2012

Table 42 Indonesia PT Telkom fixed-line subscribers - wireless v. wireline 2012

Table 43 Japan MYLINE subscribers 2002 - 2014

Table 44 Japan MYLINE operator market share February 2012

Table 45 Japan MYLINE operator market share December 2013

Table 46 Japan International internet bandwidth 1995 - 2013

Table 47 Selected cloud computing investments in Asia

Table 48 Cloud computing services market in Japan forecasts 2010 - 2015

Table 49 Kazakhstan Fixed lines in service and teledensity 1995 2013

Table 50 Kazakhstan Fixed-line subscribers in urban areas 2009 2013

Table 51 Kyrgyzstan Fixed lines in service, annual change and teledensity 1991 - 2013

Table 52 Laos Fixed lines in service 1995 - 2013

Table 53 Laos WLL (fixed) subscribers 2004 - 2012

Table 54 Laos Fibre network by operator 2012

Table 55 Macau Fixed-lines and teledensity 1985 - 2014

Table 56 Macau Fixed-line subscribers residential v. business December 2013

Table 57 Malaysia Fixed lines in service and teledensity 1995 - 2013

Table 58 Malaysia Fixed-line household penetration rate 2000 - 2013

Table 59 Maldives Fixed lines in service and teledensity 1995 - 2013

Table 60 Maldives Fixed-line subscribers by region February 2013

Table 61 Mongolia Fixed lines in service and teledensity 1990, 1995 2013

Table 62 Mongolia Local fixed-line telephone traffic 1997 2009

Table 63 Mongolia Wireless local loop (WLL) lines in service 2003 2011

Table 64 Mongolia L and S band usage July 2012

Table 65 Mongolia C band usage July 2012

Table 66 Mongolia Ku band usage July 2012

Table 67 Myanmar Fixed-line subscribers, penetration and annual change 1988, 1990, 1995 - 2013

Table 68 Nepal Fixed-lines in service and teledensity 1995 - 2013

Table 69 Nepal Fixed WLL subscribers 2006; 2008 - 2013

Table 70 Nepal Fixed-line subscribers wireline and WLL 2010 - 2013

Table 71 North Korea Fixed lines in service and teledensity 1990; 2000; 2005; 2010

Table 72 Pakistan Fixed lines in service and teledensity 1991 - 2014

Table 73 Pakistan Fixed wireline subscribers 2004 - 2013

Table 74 Pakistan Fixed wireline v. fixed wireless (WLL) subscribers 2004 - 2013

Table 75 Pakistan Fixed wireline subscribers by operator and market share June 2012

Table 76 Pakistan Growth in Public Call Offices (PCOs) 1999 - 2009

Table 77 Pakistan WLL subscribers 2005 - 2013

Table 78 Pakistan Fixed-line (wireless) subscribers by operator September 2012

Table 79 Philippines Historical - Fixed lines in service and penetration 1994 - 2004

Table 80 Philippines Fixed lines in service and penetration 2005 2014

Table 81 Philippines Fixed lines proportion of urban and residential subscribers 2007 - 2012

Table 82 Philippines Historical - Fixed lines installed versus lines in operation 1995 - 2004

Table 83 Philippines Fixed lines installed versus lines in operation 2005 - 2013

Table 84 Philippines Fixed lines - installed and subscribers by operator - 2012

Table 85 Philippines Total lines installed by operator by SAS target date

Table 86 Singapore Fixed lines in service and penetration 1998 - 2013

Table 87 Singapore Overview of fixed-line subscribers June 2013

Table 88 South Korea Registered .kr domains 1993 - 2013

Table 89 South Korea Number of IPv4 and IPv6 addresses 1997 - 2013

Table 90 South Korea International bandwidth 1997 - 2013

Table 91 South Korea Smart grid investment to 2015

Table 92 Sri Lanka Fixed lines in service, annual change and teledensity 1995 - 2013

Table 93 Sri Lanka Fixed subscribers wireline and wireless (WLL) - 2009 - 2013

Table 94 Sri Lanka WLL subscribers 1996 - 2013

Table 95 Taiwan Fixed network operators market share by revenue 2012

Table 96 Taiwan Chunghwa Telecom fixed subscribers and market share 2004 - 2012

Table 97 Tajikistan Fixed lines in service, annual growth and teledensity 1995 - 2013

Table 98 Thailand Fixed lines and teledensity 1995 - 2013

Table 99 Thailand Estimated fixed-line subscribers by operator 2011

Table 100 Thailand Estimated fixed-line subscribers metro vs provincial 2011

Table 101 Thailand Public payphones in service 2004 - 2012

Table 102 Thailand Public payphones by provider 2011

Table 103 Timor Leste Fixed line subscribers, annual change and penetration 1995; 1998 - 2000; 2003 - 2014

Table 104 Turkmenistan Fixed lines in service and teledensity 1991 2013

Table 105 Uzbekistan Fixed lines in service, annual growth and teledensity 1991 - 2013

Table 106 Vietnam Fixed line subscribers and penetration 1990 2013

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Companies

Chunghwa Telecom

Asia’s booming mobile and broadband sectors are quietly underpinned by the region’s all-important fixed infrastructure

The changing nature of the telecom market has had a major impact on the approach to investment in infrastructure. With shifting revenue patterns across the market segments and falling ARPUs on many services, operators became considerably more selective about what they actually invest in. Telecom operators throughout Asia have been adjusting investment levels on the back of carefully considered investment strategies. This has seen companies shifting business focus, looking for new ways to add value to existing revenue streams; it has also seen a strong desire to leverage new value from infrastructure that is already in place. This has especially been the case with mobile network moving increasingly to support mobile broadband services and newer generations of mobile technologies.

The governments of Asian nations have long recognised – some earlier than others – that there needed to be some encouragement of private sector investment to meet the demand for the all-important capital needed in the telecom sector. At the same time, it was also generally well recognised that this strategy could not rely on local investment alone, and would inevitably mean a substantial level of foreign investment. Of course, despite this recognition, there has inevitably been some resistance within some administrations to opening up the telecom sector to foreign investors and as a consequence the level of ‘encouragement’ across the region has been variable.

The initial round of substantial investment in telecom infrastructure in Asia was in fixed telephone networks. Over a number of decades the regional economies were progressively building their often quite substantial fixed-line national networks. These fixed networks were in time followed by the building of mobile networks. In many of the developing nations of the region, the building of fixed-line infrastructure was not far advanced before it was overwhelmed by the introduction of mobile infrastructure. This created the phenomenon of ‘substitution’ in many of the markets of Asia (where mobile services perform the function of the limited, or even non-existent, fixed telephone services.) Nevertheless, despite the unevenness in disposition, fixed infrastructure has been and continues to be an important component in the overall development of the region’s telecom sector. Coming into 2014 there were an estimated 500 million fixed-line subscribers in Asia; this was down from a peak of around 570 million in 2009; of course, fixed-line numbers are considerably less than the more than 3 billion mobile subscribers to be found in the region. Whilst the fixed line numbers have gone into an overall decline, in some markets the numbers have continued to increase. Overall, it is anticipated that the decline will continue for a few more years before the market ‘levels off.’

As already suggested, the focus of infrastructure building has been shifting. There has been a major push to upgrade domestic telecoms networks to Next Generation Networks (NGNs). This process has seen large scale investment by Asia’s leading telecoms markets in new-generation IP-based telecommunications networks. At the same time there has been a major surge in infrastructure building as mostly developed economies roll out National Broadband Networks (NBNs). These networks come in various ‘shapes and sizes’ as governments work with operators to tackle the strategic challenge of delivering high speed to the nation. Not surprisingly the NBNs rely heavily upon fibre; in some cases it is Fibre to the Premises (FttP), while in others it might be Fibre to the Node (FttN). And the cost varies accordingly. Those countries that have government backing for NBN roll-out are generally the ones that have been setting the pace.

In addition to the national networks, international connectivity remains central to the overall effectiveness of the region’s telecommunications services. Submarine cable routes criss-cross the Asia Pacific area, providing both intra-regional and inter-regional networks. This sector of the market has been characterised by widely fluctuating supply and demand, which in turn has seen somewhat erratic investment strategies. Submarine projects are subject to this boom and bust market phenomena, with planned projects commonly being delayed or abandoned, consortia being reshaped, etc. In fact, over-supply of capacity has been common in the Asian market. More recently investments have been less speculative and more focused on predicted growth. In the meantime, new submarine cable projects continue being proposed and the cables installed throughout the region. As Asia’s broadband usage surged, a major effort went into managing the shortfall in capacity between Asia and the US. At the same time there has been a shift away from the heavy reliance on the US as a hub for data traffic and this has inevitably resulted in a further change in focus.

As the demand for wholesale services continues to rise in Asia, still driven in the short term by voice, but rapidly being overtaken by data, there has been a boom in IP-based services, with the volume of international Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) traffic into and out of Asia having increased at a rapid rate at the expense of the traditional International Direct Dial (IDD) traffic.

Data in this report is the latest available at the time of preparation and may not be for the current year

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Scope

1. Statistical Overview

2. Afghanistan

2.1 Overview

2.1.1 Background

2.1.2 Post-2001

2.1.3 Fixed-line statistics

2.1.4 National network - background

2.1.5 Local Fixed Services Plan (LFSP)

2.1.6 Optical fibre backbone

2.1.7 Telecommunication Development Fund (TDF)

2.1.8 Satellite services

2.1.9 Satellite project

2.2 Infrastructure projects

2.2.1 Globecomm contracts

2.2.2 Noori Fiber Tech project

2.2.3 AWCC's microwave ring

3. Armenia

3.1 National

3.2 International

4. Azerbaijan

4.1 National telecom network

4.1.1 Next Generation Network (NGN)

4.2 International infrastructure

4.2.1 Azerbaijan's satellites

4.2.2 Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) cable network

4.2.3 Europe Persia Express Gateway (EPEG)

5. Bangladesh

5.1 National telecom network

5.1.1 Fibre optic networks

5.1.2 Grameen Telecom's Village Project

5.2 International infrastructure

5.2.1 International Gateways

5.2.2 Satellite networks

5.2.3 Submarine cable connectivity

6. Bhutan

6.1 National telecom network

6.1.1 Overview

6.1.2 Fixed-line statistics

6.1.3 Universal Service Fund (USF)

6.1.4 Rural communications programs

6.1.5 Very Small Aperture Terminals (VSATs)

6.1.6 E-Shabtog

6.1.7 National optical fibre network

6.1.8 Remote communities

6.2 International infrastructure

7. Brunei Darussalam

7.1 National telecom network

7.1.1 Public payphones

7.1.2 GSM payphones

7.1.3 Fibre-to-the-Home (FttH)

7.2 International infrastructure

7.2.1 Trans-Borneo Optical Cable Network

7.2.2 Submarine cable networks

7.2.3 Satellite networks

7.3 Infrastructure developments

7.3.1 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)

7.3.2 Next Generation Networks (NGN)

8. Cambodia

8.1 National telecom network

8.2 Optical fibre networks

8.3 Mobile towers

8.4 Fixed-line operators

8.4.1 Telecom Cambodia

8.4.2 Viettel

8.4.3 Digi

8.5 International infrastructure

8.5.1 Greater Mekong Subregion Information Superhighway (GMS-IS)

8.5.2 Cambodian-Vietnamese Super Highway Telecoms Network

8.5.3 Proposed submarine cable

9. China

9.1 Infrastructure developments in China

9.2 International infrastructure

9.2.1 Terrestrial and submarine cable infrastructure

9.2.2 Satellite infrastructure

9.3 Smart grids

9.3.1 Electricity growth projections for China

9.3.2 Smart grids China investments

9.3.3 State Grid Corporation

10. Georgia

10.1 National telecom network

10.1.1 Wireless local loop (WLL)

10.2 International infrastructure

11. Hong Kong

11.1 National Infrastructure

11.1.1 Fixed-line and mobile phones

11.1.2 Fixed telecommunications services background

11.1.3 Digital 21 IT Strategy

11.2 FttB/FttH building registration scheme

11.3 International Infrastructure

11.3.1 Submarine cable networks

12. India

12.1 National infrastructure

12.1.1 Overview

12.1.2 Statistics

12.1.3 Background to network development

12.1.4 Infrastructure sharing

12.1.5 Rural and regional networks

12.1.6 Fibre optic cable projects

12.1.7 National optical fibre network

12.1.8 Wireless Local Loop (WLL) - background

12.2 Infrastructure developments

12.2.1 IP networks

12.2.2 Next Generation Networks (NGN)

12.3 International infrastructure

12.3.1 Background

12.3.2 Interconnect agreements

12.3.3 India-Pakistan

12.3.4 International service disruption

12.3.5 Submarine cable networks

12.3.6 Satellite communications

13. Indonesia

13.1 National infrastructure

13.1.1 Overview

13.1.2 Background to development

13.1.3 Fixed-line statistics

13.1.4 Infrastructure development

13.1.5 Joint operating service (KSO) ventures five-zone plan

13.1.6 Rural telephony

13.1.7 Wireless Local Loop (WLL)

13.1.8 Telecom towers

13.2 International infrastructure

13.2.1 International gateway exchanges

13.2.2 Submarine cable networks

13.2.3 Satellite networks

14. Japan

14.1 Infrastructure developments in Japan

14.1.1 Overview

14.1.2 Stimulus package for ICT infrastructure

14.2 Fixed-network market

14.2.1 Market background

14.2.2 MYLINE Carrier Selection Service (CSS)

14.3 International infrastructure

14.3.1 Submarine cables

14.3.2 Satellite

14.4 Other infrastructure development

14.4.1 Data centres

14.4.2 Cloud computing

14.4.3 High-speed fibre

14.4.4 Smart grid

14.4.5 Earthquake damage: March 2011

14.4.6 Smart city project for Tsunami-effected cities in Japan

14.4.7 Solar power projects

14.4.8 Internet exchange points

15. Kazakhstan

15.1 National

15.1.1 Overview

15.1.2 IP-based services

15.1.3 Next Generation Network (NGN) development

15.1.4 Wireless Local Loop (WLL)

15.2 International infrastructure

15.2.1 Trans Asia-Europe (TAE)

15.2.2 Satellite networks

15.2.3 KazSat satellite series

16. Kyrgyzstan

16.1 National telecom network

16.1.1 Overview

16.1.2 Fixed-line statistics

16.2 International infrastructure

16.2.1 Satellites

16.2.2 Optical fibre cable systems

17. Laos

17.1 National telecom network

17.1.1 Overview

17.1.2 Fixed-line statistics

17.1.3 Optical fibre network

17.2 International infrastructure

17.2.1 Terrestrial cable links

17.2.2 Asian Development Bank Backbone Telecommunications Network

17.2.3 Proposed satellite system

18. Macau

18.1 National Infrastructure

18.2 International Infrastructure

19. Malaysia

19.1 Overview

19.2 National telecom network development

19.2.1 Fixed-line networks

19.2.2 Sharing / leasing of infrastructure

19.2.3 Fibre optic backbones

19.2.4 Next Generation Networks (NGNs)

19.3 High-Speed Broadband (HSBB) network

19.3.1 Telekom Malaysia's HSBB project

19.3.2 Other HSBB proposals

19.4 International infrastructure

19.4.1 International gateways

19.4.2 Malaysia-Thailand

19.4.3 Submarine cable networks

19.4.4 Submarine system developments

19.4.5 Proposed submarine cable networks

19.4.6 Asia-Pacific Gateway (APG) cable

19.4.7 Satellite networks

19.5 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)

20. Maldives

20.1 National telecom network

20.1.1 Domestic satellite service

20.2 International infrastructure

20.2.1 Satellite networks

20.2.2 Submarine cable networks

21. Mongolia

21.1 National telecom network

21.1.1 Rural services

21.2 Fixed-line statistics

21.3 Wireless local loop statistics

21.4 International infrastructure

21.5 Satellite program

21.6 Satellite band usage in Mongolia

21.7 Chronological data of ICT developments in Mongolia

22. Myanmar

22.1 National infrastructure

22.1.1 Background

22.1.2 Fixed-line statistics

22.1.3 Wireless Local Loop (WLL)

22.1.4 National backbone network

22.2 International infrastructure

22.2.1 Overview

22.2.2 Satellite networks

23. Nepal

23.1 National telecom network

23.1.1 Overview

23.1.2 Nepal East West SDH project

23.2 International infrastructure

23.2.1 Overview

23.2.2 Proposed satellite

23.3 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)

24. North Korea

24.1 National telecom network

24.1.1 North-South connections

24.2 International infrastructure

24.2.1 Satellite networks

24.3 Kwangmyongsong 3-2 Satellite

25. Pakistan

25.1 National telecom network

25.1.1 Overview

25.1.2 Fixed line statistics

25.1.3 Opening up of market

25.1.4 Rural services

25.1.5 Universal Service Fund (USF)

25.1.6 Mobile services

25.1.7 Fibre optic networks

25.1.8 Broadband networks

25.1.9 Payphones and Public Call Offices (PCOs)

25.1.10 Wireless Local Loop (WLL)

25.1.11 Next Generation Networks (NGNs)

25.1.12 Backhaul

25.2 International infrastructure

25.2.1 International gateways

25.2.2 Pakistan-India link

25.2.3 Submarine cable networks

25.2.4 Satellite networks and systems

25.3 Infrastructure developments

25.3.1 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)

26. Philippines

26.1 Philippines and Typhoon Haiyan (known locally as Typhoon Yolanda)

26.1.1 The Typhoon

26.1.2 Aftermath

26.2 Infrastructure Overview

26.3 National infrastructure

26.3.1 Overview

26.3.2 Fixed-line statistics

26.3.3 Globe Telecom's national fixed-line licence

26.4 Background: Service Area Scheme (SAS)

26.5 National fibre optic networks

26.5.1 Background

26.5.2 Developments 2012 / 2013

26.6 Next Generation Networks (NGNs)

26.6.1 PLDT

26.6.2 ETPI

26.7 International infrastructure

26.7.1 International gateways

26.7.2 Submarine cable networks

26.7.3 Satellite systems

26.8 Infrastructure developments

26.8.1 Wireless Local Loop (WLL)

26.8.2 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)

26.8.3 Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) services

27. Singapore

27.1 National telecom network

27.1.1 Overview

27.1.2 Fixed-mobile convergence (FMC)

27.2 Next Generation National Infocomm Infrastructure (Next Gen NII)

27.3 International infrastructure

27.3.1 Submarine cable networks

27.3.2 Submarine cable systems under construction

27.3.3 Flag Telecom

27.3.4 Satellite networks

27.4 Infrastructure developments

27.4.1 International services

27.4.2 IP networks

28. South Korea

28.1 National submarine cable infrastructure

28.2 International submarine cable infrastructure

28.3 Satellite infrastructure

28.4 Internet infrastructure

28.4.1 Internet eXchange (IX)

28.4.2 South Korea registered domains

28.4.3 IPv6

28.4.4 South Korea international internet bandwidth

28.5 Smart grids

28.5.1 Smart grid: new laws

28.5.2 Smart grid stages: 2010 - 2030

28.5.3 Five smart grid implementation areas

28.5.4 Jeju Island

28.6 Smart cities

28.6.1 New Songdo City

28.6.2 Busan

29. Sri Lanka

29.1 Overview

29.2 National telecom network

29.3 Fixed-line statistics

29.4 Infrastructure development

29.4.1 STL's role

29.4.2 Wireless Local Loop (WLL)

29.4.3 Fibre optic networks

29.4.4 National Backbone Network (NBN)

29.4.5 Payphones

29.4.6 Numbering plan

29.4.7 Internet Protocol (IP) networks

29.5 International infrastructure

30. Taiwan

30.1 Market overview

30.2 Fixed network operators' market share

30.3 Submarine cable networks

30.4 Satellite networks

31. Tajikistan

31.1 National and international

31.2 Infrastructure developments

31.2.1 Next Generation Networks (NGNs)

32. Thailand

32.1 National telecom network

32.1.1 Overview

32.2 Fixed-line network

32.2.1 Background

32.2.2 Statistics

32.2.3 Public payphones

32.3 Next Generation Network (NGN)

32.4 International infrastructure

32.4.1 Overview

32.4.2 Submarine cable networks

32.4.3 Submarine cable systems under construction or proposed

32.4.4 Satellite networks

33. Timor Leste

33.1 National infrastructure

33.2 International infrastructure

33.2.1 Satellite networks

33.2.2 Submarine cable

34. Turkmenistan

34.1 National and international

34.1.1 Fibre optic networks

35. Uzbekistan

35.1 National telecom network

35.1.1 Fibre optic cables

35.2 Satellite communications

36. Vietnam

36.1 National telecom network

36.1.1 Overview

36.1.2 Background to development

36.1.3 Payphones

36.1.4 Next Generation Networks (NGNs)

36.1.5 Wireless Local Loop (WLL)

36.2 National infrastructure projects and equitisation

36.2.1 SK Telecom

36.3 International infrastructure

36.3.1 Background to development

36.3.2 Submarine cable networks

36.3.3 Satellite networks

Table 1 Fixed-line subscribers in Asia by country 2009 2014

Table 2 Fixed-line penetration in Asia by country 2009 2014

Table 3 Top fifteen countries in Asia by fixed-line subscription numbers 2009 2014

Table 4 Top fifteen countries in Asia by fixed-line penetration 2009 2014

Table 5 Afghanistan Historical - Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity 1994; 2000 - 2004

Table 6 Afghanistan Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity 2005 - 2013

Table 7 Afghanistan Fixed wireless (WLL) subscribers 2011 - 2012

Table 8 Afghanistan Fixed-line subscribers wireline and wireless - 2012

Table 9 Armenia Historical - Fixed lines in service, annual change and teledensity 1991 - 2004

Table 10 Armenia Fixed lines in service, annual change and teledensity 2005 - 2013

Table 11 Azerbaijan Historical - Fixed lines in service, annual growth and teledensity 1995 - 2004

Table 12 Azerbaijan Fixed lines in service, annual growth and teledensity 2005 - 2012

Table 13 Bangladesh Fixed lines in service and teledensity 1995 - 2013

Table 14 Bangladesh optical fibre network - 2011

Table 15 Village Phones in Bangladesh 1998 2007; 2010 - 2011

Table 16 Bhutan Fixed lines in service and teledensity 1995 - 2013

Table 17 Brunei Fixed line subscribers and penetration rate 1990; 1995; 2000 - 2013

Table 18 Cambodia Fixed lines in service and penetration 1995 - 2013

Table 19 China main indicators of telecommunications capacity June 2013

Table 20 Georgia Fixed lines in service, annual change and penetration 1995 - 2013

Table 21 Georgia Fixed subscribers by technology type March 2012

Table 22 Hong Kong Fixed line versus mobile subscriptions and penetration rates 1998 - 2014

Table 23 Hong Kong Fixed-line telephony subscribers 2000 2013

Table 24 Hong Kong External fixed-line telephone traffic volume in minutes 1997 2012

Table 25 Hong Kong IP telephony subscribers 2007 - 2013

Table 26 Hong Kong Digital 21 Strategy key indicators April 2013

Table 27 External telecommunications facilities capacity of Hong Kong 2000 - 2013

Table 28 India Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity 2005 - 2013

Table 29 India Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity (historical) 1995 - 2005

Table 30 India Growth of VPT scheme 2001 - 2012

Table 31 India PCOs in operation 2003 - 2012

Table 32 India PCOs in operation and market share by operator 2012

Table 33 India Fixed WLL subscribers (historical) 2004 - 2006

Table 34 Indonesia Fixed-line subscribers, annual change and teledensity 1995 - 2013

Table 35 Indonesia Fixed lines subscribers and annual change by operator March 2013

Table 36 Indonesia Fixed wireless v. wireline subscribers March 2013

Table 37 Indonesia Planned five-year USO deployment of lines for villages 2006 - 2010

Table 38 Indonesia Fixed-wireless (WLL) subscribers 2003; 2007 - 2013

Table 39 Indonesia Fixed-wireless (WLL) subscribers by operator March 2013

Table 40 Indonesia PT Telkom's fixed wireless subscribers 2003 - 2013

Table 41 Indonesia PT Telkom fixed-line wireless subscribers - prepaid v. postpaid 2012

Table 42 Indonesia PT Telkom fixed-line subscribers - wireless v. wireline 2012

Table 43 Japan MYLINE subscribers 2002 - 2014

Table 44 Japan MYLINE operator market share February 2012

Table 45 Japan MYLINE operator market share December 2013

Table 46 Japan International internet bandwidth 1995 - 2013

Table 47 Selected cloud computing investments in Asia

Table 48 Cloud computing services market in Japan forecasts 2010 - 2015

Table 49 Kazakhstan Fixed lines in service and teledensity 1995 2013

Table 50 Kazakhstan Fixed-line subscribers in urban areas 2009 2013

Table 51 Kyrgyzstan Fixed lines in service, annual change and teledensity 1991 - 2013

Table 52 Laos Fixed lines in service 1995 - 2013

Table 53 Laos WLL (fixed) subscribers 2004 - 2012

Table 54 Laos Fibre network by operator 2012

Table 55 Macau Fixed-lines and teledensity 1985 - 2014

Table 56 Macau Fixed-line subscribers residential v. business December 2013

Table 57 Malaysia Fixed lines in service and teledensity 1995 - 2013

Table 58 Malaysia Fixed-line household penetration rate 2000 - 2013

Table 59 Maldives Fixed lines in service and teledensity 1995 - 2013

Table 60 Maldives Fixed-line subscribers by region February 2013

Table 61 Mongolia Fixed lines in service and teledensity 1990, 1995 2013

Table 62 Mongolia Local fixed-line telephone traffic 1997 2009

Table 63 Mongolia Wireless local loop (WLL) lines in service 2003 2011

Table 64 Mongolia L and S band usage July 2012

Table 65 Mongolia C band usage July 2012

Table 66 Mongolia Ku band usage July 2012

Table 67 Myanmar Fixed-line subscribers, penetration and annual change 1988, 1990, 1995 - 2013

Table 68 Nepal Fixed-lines in service and teledensity 1995 - 2013

Table 69 Nepal Fixed WLL subscribers 2006; 2008 - 2013

Table 70 Nepal Fixed-line subscribers wireline and WLL 2010 - 2013

Table 71 North Korea Fixed lines in service and teledensity 1990; 2000; 2005; 2010

Table 72 Pakistan Fixed lines in service and teledensity 1991 - 2014

Table 73 Pakistan Fixed wireline subscribers 2004 - 2013

Table 74 Pakistan Fixed wireline v. fixed wireless (WLL) subscribers 2004 - 2013

Table 75 Pakistan Fixed wireline subscribers by operator and market share June 2012

Table 76 Pakistan Growth in Public Call Offices (PCOs) 1999 - 2009

Table 77 Pakistan WLL subscribers 2005 - 2013

Table 78 Pakistan Fixed-line (wireless) subscribers by operator September 2012

Table 79 Philippines Historical - Fixed lines in service and penetration 1994 - 2004

Table 80 Philippines Fixed lines in service and penetration 2005 2014

Table 81 Philippines Fixed lines proportion of urban and residential subscribers 2007 - 2012

Table 82 Philippines Historical - Fixed lines installed versus lines in operation 1995 - 2004

Table 83 Philippines Fixed lines installed versus lines in operation 2005 - 2013

Table 84 Philippines Fixed lines - installed and subscribers by operator - 2012

Table 85 Philippines Total lines installed by operator by SAS target date

Table 86 Singapore Fixed lines in service and penetration 1998 - 2013

Table 87 Singapore Overview of fixed-line subscribers June 2013

Table 88 South Korea Registered .kr domains 1993 - 2013

Table 89 South Korea Number of IPv4 and IPv6 addresses 1997 - 2013

Table 90 South Korea International bandwidth 1997 - 2013

Table 91 South Korea Smart grid investment to 2015

Table 92 Sri Lanka Fixed lines in service, annual change and teledensity 1995 - 2013

Table 93 Sri Lanka Fixed subscribers wireline and wireless (WLL) - 2009 - 2013

Table 94 Sri Lanka WLL subscribers 1996 - 2013

Table 95 Taiwan Fixed network operators market share by revenue 2012

Table 96 Taiwan Chunghwa Telecom fixed subscribers and market share 2004 - 2012

Table 97 Tajikistan Fixed lines in service, annual growth and teledensity 1995 - 2013

Table 98 Thailand Fixed lines and teledensity 1995 - 2013

Table 99 Thailand Estimated fixed-line subscribers by operator 2011

Table 100 Thailand Estimated fixed-line subscribers metro vs provincial 2011

Table 101 Thailand Public payphones in service 2004 - 2012

Table 102 Thailand Public payphones by provider 2011

Table 103 Timor Leste Fixed line subscribers, annual change and penetration 1995; 1998 - 2000; 2003 - 2014

Table 104 Turkmenistan Fixed lines in service and teledensity 1991 2013

Table 105 Uzbekistan Fixed lines in service, annual growth and teledensity 1991 - 2013

Table 106 Vietnam Fixed line subscribers and penetration 1990 2013

Chart 1 - Afghanistan Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity - 2005 - 2013

Chart 2 - Afghanistan Fixed-line subscribers - wireline and wireless - 2012

Chart 3 Armenia Fixed lines in service, annual change and teledensity - 2005 - 2013

Chart 4 Azerbaijan Fixed lines in service and teledensity 2001 2013

Chart 5 Bangladesh fixed-line subscribers and teledensity 2000 - 2013

Chart 6 - Bhutan Fixed lines in service and teledensity - 2000-2013

Chart 7 - Brunei Fixed line subscribers and penetration rate - 2000 2013

Chart 8 - Cambodia Fixed lines in service and penetration 2006-2013 (e)

Chart 9 - Georgia Fixed lines in service, annual change and penetration - 2007 2013

Chart 10 - Georgia Fixed subscribers by technology type - March 2012

Chart 11 Hong Kong fixed-line and mobile subscribers 1995 - 2014

Chart 12 Hong Kong fixed-line telephony subscribers 2000 - 2013

Chart 13 Hong Kong IP telephony subscribers 2007 - 2013

Chart 14 - India Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity 2005 - 2013

Chart 15 - India Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity (historical) 1995 - 2005

Chart 16 India PCOs in operation and market share by operator - 2012

Chart 17 - Indonesia Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity 2005 - 2013

Chart 18 Japan International bandwidth 2005 2013

Chart 19 - Kazakhstan Fixed lines in service and annual change - 2000-2013 (e)

Chart 20 - Kyrgyzstan Fixed lines in service, annual change and teledensity - 2000-2013

Chart 21 - Laos Fixed lines in service - 2005 - 2013

Chart 22: Macau Fixed and mobile subscribers: 2000 - 2014

Chart 23 - Malaysia Fixed lines in service and teledensity - 2000 2013

Chart 24 - Maldives Fixed lines in service and teledensity - 2000 2013

Chart 25 - Maldives Fixed line subscribers by region - February 2013

Chart 26 Mongolia Fixed lines in service and teledensity 1998 2014

Chart 27 - Myanmar Fixed-line subscribers and annual change - 2000 2013

Chart 28 - Nepal Fixed lines in service and annual change 2000 - 2013

Chart 29 - Pakistan Fixed lines in service and teledensity - 2001-2014

Chart 30 - Pakistan Fixed wireline vs. fixed wireless subscribers - 2004-2013

Chart 31 - Pakistan Growth in Public Call Offices - 1999-2009

Chart 32 - Pakistan WLL subscribers by operator and market share - September 2012

Chart 33 - Philippines Fixed lines in service and annual change - 2005 2014

Chart 34 - Philippines Fixed line operators - market share - 2012

Chart 35 - Singapore Fixed lines in service and penetration - 2000-2013

Chart 36 - Sri Lanka Fixed lines in service and annual change 2000 - 2013(e)

Chart 37 - Sri Lanka Fixed subscribers - wireline and WLL - 2009-2013

Chart 38 - Tajikistan Fixed lines in service, annual growth and teledensity - 2000-2013

Chart 39 Thailand Fixed and mobile subscribers 1999 - 2010

Chart 40 - Thailand Fixed lines and teledensity - 2000-2012

Chart 41 - Thailand Public payphones in service - 2004-2011

Chart 42 - Timor Leste Fixed line subscribers and penetration - 2003 2014

Chart 43 - Turkmenistan Fixed lines in service and annual change 2000-2013

Chart 44 - Uzbekistan Fixed lines in service, annual growth and teledensity 2001 - 2013

Chart 45 Vietnam Fixed line subscribers and annual change 2005 - 2013

Exhibit 1 Major submarine cables with landing points in Brunei - 2012

Exhibit 2 China Regional/international fibre optic cable networks: Augusy 2013

Exhibit 3 Selected Chinese satellite service providers and satellites

Exhibit 4 China Satcom satellite fleet

Exhibit 5 Major submarine cables with landing points in Hong Kong 2013

Exhibit 6 International submarine cable systems with landing points in India - 2012

Exhibit 7 India ISRO satellite network September 2012

Exhibit 8 Indonesia Palapa Ring Project specification of rings

Exhibit 9 Indonesian satellites 2012

Exhibit 10 Japan Major members of MYLINE Carriers Association February 2012

Exhibit 11 Japan Major global/regional submarine cables with landing point in Japan - 2014

Exhibit 12 Kazakhstan Construction of the National Information Highway (NIH) backbone

Exhibit 13 International submarine cable systems with landing points in Malaysia - 2013

Exhibit 14 Chronological events of ICT developments in Mongolia 1921 2011

Exhibit 15 Philippines Major submarine cables with landing points in the Philippines - 2011

Exhibit 16 International submarine cable systems with landing points in Singapore 2013

Exhibit 17 National submarine fibre optic cables overview in South Korea

Exhibit 18 International submarine fibre optic cables overview in South Korea

Exhibit 19 KOREASAT satellite status

Exhibit 20 South Korea Interconnection status by IX - 2011

Exhibit 21 South Korea Smart grid implementation areas

Exhibit 22 South Korea Phased implementation plan of Jeju Smart Grid: 2010 - 2013

Exhibit 23 Major global/regional submarine cables with landing point in Taiwan 2013

Exhibit 24 Thailand Submarine cable networks - 2012

Exhibit 25 Thaicom's satellite network June 2013


List Of Figure

Chart 1 - Afghanistan Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity - 2005 - 2013

Chart 2 - Afghanistan Fixed-line subscribers - wireline and wireless - 2012

Chart 3 Armenia Fixed lines in service, annual change and teledensity - 2005 - 2013

Chart 4 Azerbaijan Fixed lines in service and teledensity 2001 2013

Chart 5 Bangladesh fixed-line subscribers and teledensity 2000 - 2013

Chart 6 - Bhutan Fixed lines in service and teledensity - 2000-2013

Chart 7 - Brunei Fixed line subscribers and penetration rate - 2000 2013

Chart 8 - Cambodia Fixed lines in service and penetration 2006-2013 (e)

Chart 9 - Georgia Fixed lines in service, annual change and penetration - 2007 2013

Chart 10 - Georgia Fixed subscribers by technology type - March 2012

Chart 11 Hong Kong fixed-line and mobile subscribers 1995 - 2014

Chart 12 Hong Kong fixed-line telephony subscribers 2000 - 2013

Chart 13 Hong Kong IP telephony subscribers 2007 - 2013

Chart 14 - India Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity 2005 - 2013

Chart 15 - India Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity (historical) 1995 - 2005

Chart 16 India PCOs in operation and market share by operator - 2012

Chart 17 - Indonesia Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity 2005 - 2013

Chart 18 Japan International bandwidth 2005 2013

Chart 19 - Kazakhstan Fixed lines in service and annual change - 2000-2013 (e)

Chart 20 - Kyrgyzstan Fixed lines in service, annual change and teledensity - 2000-2013

Chart 21 - Laos Fixed lines in service - 2005 - 2013

Chart 22: Macau Fixed and mobile subscribers: 2000 - 2014

Chart 23 - Malaysia Fixed lines in service and teledensity - 2000 2013

Chart 24 - Maldives Fixed lines in service and teledensity - 2000 2013

Chart 25 - Maldives Fixed line subscribers by region - February 2013

Chart 26 Mongolia Fixed lines in service and teledensity 1998 2014

Chart 27 - Myanmar Fixed-line subscribers and annual change - 2000 2013

Chart 28 - Nepal Fixed lines in service and annual change 2000 - 2013

Chart 29 - Pakistan Fixed lines in service and teledensity - 2001-2014

Chart 30 - Pakistan Fixed wireline vs. fixed wireless subscribers - 2004-2013

Chart 31 - Pakistan Growth in Public Call Offices - 1999-2009

Chart 32 - Pakistan WLL subscribers by operator and market share - September 2012

Chart 33 - Philippines Fixed lines in service and annual change - 2005 2014

Chart 34 - Philippines Fixed line operators - market share - 2012

Chart 35 - Singapore Fixed lines in service and penetration - 2000-2013

Chart 36 - Sri Lanka Fixed lines in service and annual change 2000 - 2013(e)

Chart 37 - Sri Lanka Fixed subscribers - wireline and WLL - 2009-2013

Chart 38 - Tajikistan Fixed lines in service, annual growth and teledensity - 2000-2013

Chart 39 Thailand Fixed and mobile subscribers 1999 - 2010

Chart 40 - Thailand Fixed lines and teledensity - 2000-2012

Chart 41 - Thailand Public payphones in service - 2004-2011

Chart 42 - Timor Leste Fixed line subscribers and penetration - 2003 2014

Chart 43 - Turkmenistan Fixed lines in service and annual change 2000-2013

Chart 44 - Uzbekistan Fixed lines in service, annual growth and teledensity 2001 - 2013

Chart 45 Vietnam Fixed line subscribers and annual change 2005 - 2013

Exhibit 1 Major submarine cables with landing points in Brunei - 2012

Exhibit 2 China Regional/international fibre optic cable networks: Augusy 2013

Exhibit 3 Selected Chinese satellite service providers and satellites

Exhibit 4 China Satcom satellite fleet

Exhibit 5 Major submarine cables with landing points in Hong Kong 2013

Exhibit 6 International submarine cable systems with landing points in India - 2012

Exhibit 7 India ISRO satellite network September 2012

Exhibit 8 Indonesia Palapa Ring Project specification of rings

Exhibit 9 Indonesian satellites 2012

Exhibit 10 Japan Major members of MYLINE Carriers Association February 2012

Exhibit 11 Japan Major global/regional submarine cables with landing point in Japan - 2014

Exhibit 12 Kazakhstan Construction of the National Information Highway (NIH) backbone

Exhibit 13 International submarine cable systems with landing points in Malaysia - 2013

Exhibit 14 Chronological events of ICT developments in Mongolia 1921 2011

Exhibit 15 Philippines Major submarine cables with landing points in the Philippines - 2011

Exhibit 16 International submarine cable systems with landing points in Singapore 2013

Exhibit 17 National submarine fibre optic cables overview in South Korea

Exhibit 18 International submarine fibre optic cables overview in South Korea

Exhibit 19 KOREASAT satellite status

Exhibit 20 South Korea Interconnection status by IX - 2011

Exhibit 21 South Korea Smart grid implementation areas

Exhibit 22 South Korea Phased implementation plan of Jeju Smart Grid: 2010 - 2013

Exhibit 23 Major global/regional submarine cables with landing point in Taiwan 2013

Exhibit 24 Thailand Submarine cable networks - 2012

Exhibit 25 Thaicom's satellite network June 2013


List Of Table

Table 1 Fixed-line subscribers in Asia by country 2009 2014

Table 2 Fixed-line penetration in Asia by country 2009 2014

Table 3 Top fifteen countries in Asia by fixed-line subscription numbers 2009 2014

Table 4 Top fifteen countries in Asia by fixed-line penetration 2009 2014

Table 5 Afghanistan Historical - Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity 1994; 2000 - 2004

Table 6 Afghanistan Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity 2005 - 2013

Table 7 Afghanistan Fixed wireless (WLL) subscribers 2011 - 2012

Table 8 Afghanistan Fixed-line subscribers wireline and wireless - 2012

Table 9 Armenia Historical - Fixed lines in service, annual change and teledensity 1991 - 2004

Table 10 Armenia Fixed lines in service, annual change and teledensity 2005 - 2013

Table 11 Azerbaijan Historical - Fixed lines in service, annual growth and teledensity 1995 - 2004

Table 12 Azerbaijan Fixed lines in service, annual growth and teledensity 2005 - 2012

Table 13 Bangladesh Fixed lines in service and teledensity 1995 - 2013

Table 14 Bangladesh optical fibre network - 2011

Table 15 Village Phones in Bangladesh 1998 2007; 2010 - 2011

Table 16 Bhutan Fixed lines in service and teledensity 1995 - 2013

Table 17 Brunei Fixed line subscribers and penetration rate 1990; 1995; 2000 - 2013

Table 18 Cambodia Fixed lines in service and penetration 1995 - 2013

Table 19 China main indicators of telecommunications capacity June 2013

Table 20 Georgia Fixed lines in service, annual change and penetration 1995 - 2013

Table 21 Georgia Fixed subscribers by technology type March 2012

Table 22 Hong Kong Fixed line versus mobile subscriptions and penetration rates 1998 - 2014

Table 23 Hong Kong Fixed-line telephony subscribers 2000 2013

Table 24 Hong Kong External fixed-line telephone traffic volume in minutes 1997 2012

Table 25 Hong Kong IP telephony subscribers 2007 - 2013

Table 26 Hong Kong Digital 21 Strategy key indicators April 2013

Table 27 External telecommunications facilities capacity of Hong Kong 2000 - 2013

Table 28 India Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity 2005 - 2013

Table 29 India Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity (historical) 1995 - 2005

Table 30 India Growth of VPT scheme 2001 - 2012

Table 31 India PCOs in operation 2003 - 2012

Table 32 India PCOs in operation and market share by operator 2012

Table 33 India Fixed WLL subscribers (historical) 2004 - 2006

Table 34 Indonesia Fixed-line subscribers, annual change and teledensity 1995 - 2013

Table 35 Indonesia Fixed lines subscribers and annual change by operator March 2013

Table 36 Indonesia Fixed wireless v. wireline subscribers March 2013

Table 37 Indonesia Planned five-year USO deployment of lines for villages 2006 - 2010

Table 38 Indonesia Fixed-wireless (WLL) subscribers 2003; 2007 - 2013

Table 39 Indonesia Fixed-wireless (WLL) subscribers by operator March 2013

Table 40 Indonesia PT Telkom's fixed wireless subscribers 2003 - 2013

Table 41 Indonesia PT Telkom fixed-line wireless subscribers - prepaid v. postpaid 2012

Table 42 Indonesia PT Telkom fixed-line subscribers - wireless v. wireline 2012

Table 43 Japan MYLINE subscribers 2002 - 2014

Table 44 Japan MYLINE operator market share February 2012

Table 45 Japan MYLINE operator market share December 2013

Table 46 Japan International internet bandwidth 1995 - 2013

Table 47 Selected cloud computing investments in Asia

Table 48 Cloud computing services market in Japan forecasts 2010 - 2015

Table 49 Kazakhstan Fixed lines in service and teledensity 1995 2013

Table 50 Kazakhstan Fixed-line subscribers in urban areas 2009 2013

Table 51 Kyrgyzstan Fixed lines in service, annual change and teledensity 1991 - 2013

Table 52 Laos Fixed lines in service 1995 - 2013

Table 53 Laos WLL (fixed) subscribers 2004 - 2012

Table 54 Laos Fibre network by operator 2012

Table 55 Macau Fixed-lines and teledensity 1985 - 2014

Table 56 Macau Fixed-line subscribers residential v. business December 2013

Table 57 Malaysia Fixed lines in service and teledensity 1995 - 2013

Table 58 Malaysia Fixed-line household penetration rate 2000 - 2013

Table 59 Maldives Fixed lines in service and teledensity 1995 - 2013

Table 60 Maldives Fixed-line subscribers by region February 2013

Table 61 Mongolia Fixed lines in service and teledensity 1990, 1995 2013

Table 62 Mongolia Local fixed-line telephone traffic 1997 2009

Table 63 Mongolia Wireless local loop (WLL) lines in service 2003 2011

Table 64 Mongolia L and S band usage July 2012

Table 65 Mongolia C band usage July 2012

Table 66 Mongolia Ku band usage July 2012

Table 67 Myanmar Fixed-line subscribers, penetration and annual change 1988, 1990, 1995 - 2013

Table 68 Nepal Fixed-lines in service and teledensity 1995 - 2013

Table 69 Nepal Fixed WLL subscribers 2006; 2008 - 2013

Table 70 Nepal Fixed-line subscribers wireline and WLL 2010 - 2013

Table 71 North Korea Fixed lines in service and teledensity 1990; 2000; 2005; 2010

Table 72 Pakistan Fixed lines in service and teledensity 1991 - 2014

Table 73 Pakistan Fixed wireline subscribers 2004 - 2013

Table 74 Pakistan Fixed wireline v. fixed wireless (WLL) subscribers 2004 - 2013

Table 75 Pakistan Fixed wireline subscribers by operator and market share June 2012

Table 76 Pakistan Growth in Public Call Offices (PCOs) 1999 - 2009

Table 77 Pakistan WLL subscribers 2005 - 2013

Table 78 Pakistan Fixed-line (wireless) subscribers by operator September 2012

Table 79 Philippines Historical - Fixed lines in service and penetration 1994 - 2004

Table 80 Philippines Fixed lines in service and penetration 2005 2014

Table 81 Philippines Fixed lines proportion of urban and residential subscribers 2007 - 2012

Table 82 Philippines Historical - Fixed lines installed versus lines in operation 1995 - 2004

Table 83 Philippines Fixed lines installed versus lines in operation 2005 - 2013

Table 84 Philippines Fixed lines - installed and subscribers by operator - 2012

Table 85 Philippines Total lines installed by operator by SAS target date

Table 86 Singapore Fixed lines in service and penetration 1998 - 2013

Table 87 Singapore Overview of fixed-line subscribers June 2013

Table 88 South Korea Registered .kr domains 1993 - 2013

Table 89 South Korea Number of IPv4 and IPv6 addresses 1997 - 2013

Table 90 South Korea International bandwidth 1997 - 2013

Table 91 South Korea Smart grid investment to 2015

Table 92 Sri Lanka Fixed lines in service, annual change and teledensity 1995 - 2013

Table 93 Sri Lanka Fixed subscribers wireline and wireless (WLL) - 2009 - 2013

Table 94 Sri Lanka WLL subscribers 1996 - 2013

Table 95 Taiwan Fixed network operators market share by revenue 2012

Table 96 Taiwan Chunghwa Telecom fixed subscribers and market share 2004 - 2012

Table 97 Tajikistan Fixed lines in service, annual growth and teledensity 1995 - 2013

Table 98 Thailand Fixed lines and teledensity 1995 - 2013

Table 99 Thailand Estimated fixed-line subscribers by operator 2011

Table 100 Thailand Estimated fixed-line subscribers metro vs provincial 2011

Table 101 Thailand Public payphones in service 2004 - 2012

Table 102 Thailand Public payphones by provider 2011

Table 103 Timor Leste Fixed line subscribers, annual change and penetration 1995; 1998 - 2000; 2003 - 2014

Table 104 Turkmenistan Fixed lines in service and teledensity 1991 2013

Table 105 Uzbekistan Fixed lines in service, annual growth and teledensity 1991 - 2013

Table 106 Vietnam Fixed line subscribers and penetration 1990 2013

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